Pacific Decadal Climate Variability

Development of a basin scale framework for the interpretation of the observed and projected Pacific climate variability

  • Liguori, G. and E. Di Lorenzo, 2019:  Separating the North and South Pacific Meridional Modes contributions to ENSO and tropical decadal variability.  Geophysical Research Letters, doi: favicon-pdf
  • G. Liguori and E. Di Lorenzo, 2018. Meridional Modes and Increasing Pacific decadal variability under greenhouse forcing. Geophysical Research Letters, doi: 10.1002/2017GL076548. [AWARD]
  • Scott Power, Ramiro Saurral, Christine Chung, Rob Colman, Viatcheslav Kharin, George Boer, Joelle Gergis, Benjamin Henley, Shayne McGregor, Julie Arblaster, Neil Holbrook, Giovanni Liguori,  2017: Towards the prediction of multi-year to decadal climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere. PAGES/CLIVAR EXCHANGES, Vol. 25, No. 1, 32-40 doi: 10.22498/pages.25.1.32     [favicon-pdf]
  • Di Lorenzo E. , Liguori G.,  Mantua N.,  2016: Climate interpretation of the North Pacific marine heatwave of 2013-2015. U.S. CLIVAR VARIATIONS, Vol. 14, No .2, 13-18     [favicon-pdf]  [youtube_icon4]
  • Di Lorenzo E., Liguori G., Schneider N., Furtado J. C., Anderson B. T., Alexander M. A., 2015: ENSO and Meridional Modes: a null hypothesis for Pacific climate variability. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2015GL066281.. [favicon-pdf]

 Mediterranean Sea Climate Variability and Modelling

  • Liguori G., Di Lorenzo E. , Cabos W.,  2016: A multi-model ensemble view of winter heat flux dynamics and the dipole mode in the Mediterranean Sea. Climate Dynamics, doi: 10.1007/s00382-016-3129-0. [favicon-pdf]
  • Ruti P., Somot S., Dubois C., Calmanti S., Ahrens B., Aznar R., Bartholy J., Béranger K., Bastin S., Brauch J., Calvet J.C., Carillo A., Alias A., Decharme B., Dell'Aquila A., Djurdjevic V., Drobinski P., Elizalde Arellano A., Gaertner M., Galan P., Gallardo C., Giorgi F., Gualdi S., Bellucci A., Harzallah A., Herrmann M., Jacob D., Khodayar S., Krichak S., Lebeaupin C., Lheveder B., Li L., Liguori G., Lionello P., Baris O., Rajkovic B., Sevault F., Sannino G., 2016: MED-CORDEX Initiative for Mediterranean Climate Studies. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00176.1. [favicon-pdf]
  • Ortiz Beviá M.J., Álvarez García F.J., Ruiz de Elvira A., Liguori, G., Hernández-Carretero J., 2012: The Western Mediterranean Summer Variability and its Feedbacks. Climate Dynamics, doi: 10.1007/S00382-012-1409-X. [favicon-pdf]

 Earth System Climate Modelling

Climate modeling at global scale with the Community Earth System Model (CESM)

- Ongoing simulations with CESM1.2.1  [Grids: T31 (~3.75°),  f45 (~4°x5°),  and gx3v7 (~3°)]

  1. Pre-Industrial Control Run with T31_g37       [CVD: Climate Variability Diagnostics]
    • Transient (spin-up)  [CVD]
    • Equilibrium                  [CVD]
  2. Pre-Industrial Control Run with f45_g37
    • Transient (spin-up)  [CVD]
    • Equilibrium                  [CVD]

 Regional Climate Modelling

Climate modeling at regional scale with the regional climate atmospheric model REMO

  • Cabos Narvaez, W, Sein, D. V., Durán-Quesada, A., Liguori, G., and et al., 2018: Dynamical downscaling of historical climate over CORDEX Central America domain with a Regionally coupled atmosphere-ocean model. Climate Dynamics, doi10.1007/s00382-018-4381-2. favicon-pdf
  • C. Fernandez, M. D. Frias, J., W. D.Cabos, A. S. Cofino, M. Dominguez, L. Fita, M. A. Gaertner, M. Garcıa-Dıez, J. M. Gutierrez, P. Jimenez-Guerrero, G. Liguori, J. P. Montavez, R. Romera, E. Sanchez, 2018: Consistency of climate change projections from multiple global and regional model intercomparison projects. Climate Dynamics, doi: 10.1007/s00382-018-4181-8favicon-pdf
  • Gomez G., Cabos W., Liguori G., Lozaon S., Fita L., Fernández J.,Magariño E., Jiménez-Guerrero P., Montalvez J., Domínguez M., Romera R., Gaertner M., 2014: Characterization of the wind speed variability and future  change in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. Wind Energy,  doi: 10.1002/we.1893.[favicon-pdf]
  • P.Jimenez-Guerrero, J.P.Montalvo, M.Dominguez, R.Romera, L.Fita, J.Fernandez, W.D.Cabos, G. Liguori, M.A.Gaertner, 2013: Description of mean fields and interannual variability in an ensemble of RCM evaluation simulations over Spain: Results from the ESCENA project. Climate Research, doi: 10.3354/cr01165.[favicon-pdf]
  • Dominguez,M., R. Romera, E. Sanchez, L. Fita, J. Fernandez, P. Jimenez-Guerrero, J.P. Montalvo, W.D. Cabos, G. Liguori, M.A. Gaertner, 2013: Precipitation and temperature extremes under present climate over Spain from a set of high resolution RCMs. Climate Research, doi: 10.3354/cr01186. [favicon-pdf ]

 Ocean Modelling

Ocean modeling at regional scale with the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS)

  • I. Iermano, G. Liguori, D. Iudicone, B. Buongiorn, S. Colella, A. Zingone, V. Saggiomo, M. Ribera d’Alcalà, 2012: Filament formation and evolution in buoyant coastal waters: observation and modelling. Progress in Oceanography, , doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.08.003. [favicon-pdf ]


 An ensemble forecasting procedure for the EU-sponsored Mediterranean Sea forecasting system

The development of an ensemble forecasting procedure for the Mediterranean Sea operational model will be developed within the EuroSea framework. Specifically such a development is the main target of task 4.3 of EuroSea's working package 4 (  

 Bayesian Hierarchical Model for ensemble forecasting of the ocean

The short-term goal is to use a Bayesian  Hierarchical Model to produce perturbed surface winds that optimize the generation of an ensemble forecasts for the EU-sponsored Mediterranean Sea operational model (


Project Presentation
Workshop CRYOPERU  (Lima, June 27th - July 1st, 2016)

13652894_301919786809441_298483134688565249_o  13653257_301920113476075_9059442647507721737_o

Visit to the glacial Artesonraju  (July 4-6, 2016)



The principal aim of ESCENA Spanish project is to generate, through dynamical downscaling techniques, high resolution climate change scenarios based on an ensemble of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Iberian Peninsula and surrounding areas. This region is especially interesting because of its heterogeneous topography and climate in a relative small domain. In addition to Spain, ESCENA provides useful information regarding climate change projections for countries like Portugal and Morocco. Four groups are involved in this project: the University of Cantabria (UC), the University of Murcia (UM), the University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) and the University of Alcalá de Henares (UAH). ESCENA produced a dataset comparable with the RCM products generated within the PRUDENCE (2001-2004) and ENSEMBLES (2004-2009) European projects, using the same resolution as in ENSEMBLES (25 km). It complements the ENSEMBLES dataset through the use of improved or additional RCMs (PROMES, WRF, MM5 and REMO), nested in three Global Climate Models (GCMs) (HadCM3, ECHAM5 and ARPEGE) and a larger set of emissions scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1), giving as a result an almost complete matrix of GCM/RCM combinations. Another important difference with respect to ENSEMBLES is the simulation domain, which is centered over the Iberian Peninsula and covers parts of the Atlantic Ocean, including the Canary Islands, which were not included in these European projects.

escena_domains_v2Fig. Simulation domains used in the models used in the ESCENA project. Color shades: topography of domain.

 Work in progress

- Ongoing simulations with CESM1.2.1  [Grids: T31 (~3.75°),  f45 (~4°x5°),  and gx3v7 (~3°)]

  1. Pre-Industrial Control Run with T31_g37       [CVD: Climate Variability Diagnostics]
    • Transient (spin-up) %2